Course Reserve Limits


  • One paper copy of an article, an entire chapter of a book, or an entire poem may be placed on reserve for one semester, even if the copies were obtained through interlibrary loan.
  • One paper copy of an article, an entire chapter of a book, or an entire poem supplied by an instructor may be placed on reserve provided that the copyright notice is included on the first page.


Multiple Copies


Multiple paper copies on reserve should meet the following guidelines:


  • Amount of material should be reasonable in relation to the total amount of materials assigned for one term of a course taking into account the nature of the course, its subject matter and level (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (1) and (3))
  • Number of copies should be reasonable in light of the number of students enrolled, the difficulty and timing of assignments, and the number of other courses which may assign the same material (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (1) and (3))
  • Effect of photocopying the material should not be detrimental to the market for the work. (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (4))


Copyright Permission


It may be necessary to receive copyright permission when:


There is repetitive copying
The reserve use of photocopied materials in multiple courses or in successive years will normally require advance permission from the owner of the copyright (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (3)).


It is a consumable work
The duplication of works that are consumed in the classroom, such as standardized tests, exercises, and workbooks, normally requires permission from the copyright owner (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (4)).


It is a creation of an anthology as a basic text material for a course (a.k.a. "course packs")
Creation of a collective work or anthology by photocopying a number of copyrighted articles and excerpts to be purchased and used together as the basic text for a course will in most instances require the permission of the copyright owners. Such photocopying is more likely to be considered as a substitute for purchase of a book and thus less likely to be deemed fair use (17 U.S.C. Sec 107 (4)).


If you ask the library, we will request permission to use photocopied materials through the Copyright Clearance Center. However, copyright owners may charge a fee for permission to use an article. These fees will be your responsibility.


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